Assessment and evaluation in education has been always the one of the most complex and necessary issues among the educational researchers. The complex nature of educational evaluation requires multi-faceted and deep measurement, assessment and evaluation procedures. This nature of educational evaluation attracts the attention of many educational researchers, teachers and students. This book is aimed to coiled current studies in education for the understanding and use of current educational evaluation procedures. The book is prepared to be used for the academics, graduate and undergraduate students as well as teachers as the practitioner of educational evaluation. The book is included 27 chapters. First, the cognitive procedures are revealed to understand what is problem and what happens during the problem solving. Then, the educational evaluation procedures are introduced in terms of traditional and non-traditional perspective. Moreover, national and international exams are highlighted and introduced for their aim and application. Furthermore, the domain specific evaluation is underlined which requires educational evaluation to overcome knowledge and evaluation process specific to the concepts and abilities of the domain. Finally, hot topics of educational evaluation are presented such as evaluation in STEM education or how to evaluate skills such as entrepreneurship.